Military Medical Academy S. M. Kirov, Russia

The S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy is the oldest school of military medicine in Saint Petersburg and the Russian Federation. Senior medical staffs are trained for the Armed Forces and conduct research in military medical services.

The origins of S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy go back to the years of Peter the Great. In 1715 by the Tsar’s order the Admiralty Hospital in the Vyborg Side of Saint Petersburgwas founded. In 1717 next to in the Land Military Hospital was opened. Since 1773 surgical schools attached to both hospitals were operating. In 1786 those schools were consolidated into the Main Medical College. It became the principal training center for army and fleet physicians.

The official day of the establishment of the Military Medical Academy is December 18 (29), 1798, when Emperor Paul I signed a decree “on … setting up a special building for the medical school and educational theaters at the main hospitals.” The history of this event dates back to the beginning of the XVIII century, when during the construction of St. Petersburg Peter I took part in the laying in 1715 on the Vyborg side of the Admiralty Hospital. Later in 1717, next to him was laid and Land hospital. Since 1773, they have opened educational surgical schools, which in 1786 were united in the Main Medical School, preparing doctors for the Russian army and navy. The initiator of the Academy’s birth was the chief director of the Baron AI Medical College. Vasiliev, who presented a special report to the emperor, in which he convincingly substantiated the need to establish a medical-surgical school as a center for the training of qualified medical personnel. Soon the school was renamed into the Medical and Surgical Academy, and in 1808 Alexander I gave her the right to be called the Imperial Academy.

Along with the medical academy, the top veterinary and pharmaceutical education also began. It became the first and most important scientific, educational and medical center in Russia, where the first Russian original medical textbooks were published and where professors for medical faculties of Russian universities began to prepare.

From 1808 to 1838, the academy was headed by a native of Scotland, an outstanding military doctor and organizer of medical affairs Ya.V. Willie. All his life he gave to the formation of military medicine in Russia, 50 years was the chief medical inspector of the Russian army.

From 1841 to 1856, the great Russian surgeon Nikolai Pirogov worked at the academy, marking the whole epoch in the development of medical science, practice and education. He developed the scientific basis of military field surgery, outlined ways to solve many organizational issues of military medicine, reformed the training of doctors in the country. For the first time in the world he was used on the battlefield for anesthetic anesthesia, plaster cast and involved in the care of the wounded nurses of mercy.

In the history of the academy there is a period that is not without pride called “the golden age” and connects it with the name of PA. Dubovitsky, appointed to the post of president of the Academy by Emperor Alexander II in 1857. For ten years of his activity, he carried out a program for the reorganization of the Academy, the main content of which was the development of the material base, the repair of existing buildings and the construction of new buildings for the departments and clinics, the creation of new medical buildings. For the first time in the country, departments and clinics for gynecology, psychiatry, ophthalmology, operative surgery, pediatrics, otolaryngology and others were established. He created the “Medical Institute”, which became the prototype of an adjunct. Having established in 1872 “Special medical course for the education of midwifery scientists”

He attracted prominent scientists and teachers to work in the academy, trained and educated a pleiad of young and talented scientists who later became her fame and pride. The founder of domestic physiology IM. Sechenov gave a scientific justification for the reflexes of the brain. Proceedings of SP Botkin opened a new stage in the development of clinical medicine. They created the largest therapeutic school, including the first in Russia department of military field therapy, laboratory methods of research were put into practice. He achieved the construction of a free hospital for the poor, now called his name.

Academician I.P. Pavlov became one of the first Nobel Prize laureates in the field of medicine. His classic studies in the physiology of digestion, circulation and higher nervous activity, he made a revolution in physiology. His doctrine of conditioned reflexes, two signal systems is a great contribution to world science.

V.M. Bekhterev, an outstanding psychologist, neurologist and psychiatrist, became the organizer of the psychiatric service in Russia, the founder of psychotherapy.

The young surgeon N.S. Korotkov immortalized his name by the discovery of a method of measuring blood pressure.

Outstanding Russian physicist V. V. Petrov, direct continuer of the works of M.V. Lomonosov, the first in the world discovered the law of converting electrical energy into light.

Acknowledgment of the recognition of the Academy as an institution of world significance was the awarding of the title of Honorary Member of the Military Medical Academy to more than 300 outstanding scientists in the field of natural sciences and medicine of Russia and foreign countries, as well as to major statesmen.

The Military Medical Academy was founded by the Academy of Medical Sciences, established in December 1944. The authority of the Military Medical Academy was created by its professors, doctors and educators, many of whom became founders of famous scientific schools. Among them, N.I. Pirogov, who created the school of military field surgeons, S.P. Botkin – the founder of the school of military therapists, I.M. Sechenov and I.P. Pavlov founded the school of Russian physiologists, I.M. Arinkin founded a school of hematology, E.N. Pavlovsky – school of parasitologists and infectious diseases, N.P. Simanovsky – school of otolaryngology, biophysics – V.V. Petrov (the first Russian electrical engineer), V. ME. Bekhterev – Neurology and Psychoneurology, K.M. Figurnov – military gynecologists, V.A. Hilko – neurosurgery.

By the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of December 17, 1998, No. 1595, the Academy was included in the State Register of Highly Valuable Objects of the Cultural Heritage of the Peoples of the Russian Federation.

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