University of Michigan Medical School, USA

Michigan Medicine,  formerly the University of Michigan Health System (UMHS), is the wholly owned academic medical centerof the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. It includes the U-M Medical School, with its faculty group practice and many research laboratories; the U-M hospitals and health centers, which include University Hospital, C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, Von Voigtlander Women’s Hospital, as well as approximately 40 health centers and home care services across southeast Michigan; the clinical programs of the U-M School of Nursing; and the activities of the Michigan Health Corporation, through which U-M partners with other medical centers and hospitals to provide specialized care throughout Michigan.

In June 2014, the University of Michigan Hospitals & Health Centers projected that it would end its 2014 fiscal year with an operating margin of 0.7 percent ($17 million) on revenues of $2.52 billion. In 2015, the Hospitals and Health Centers aimed to achieve an operating margin of 3 percent on revenues of about $2.66 billion. The results for 2016 and the projection for 2017 were even stronger.

As a non-profit entity, Michigan Medicine uses positive operating margins to fund continued advances in patient care, education, research, and the facilities needed to support these functions.

Michigan Medicine provides a broad range of care, with specialized centers for Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, cardiovascular care, depression, diabetes, epilepsy, geriatrics, organ transplant, pediatrics, trauma/burn, vision, and women’s health research and care. Its hospitals have 1,000 licensed beds. As a tertiary care center, Michigan Medicine has 179 intensive care unit (ICU) beds, giving it one of the highest number of ICU beds in the country.

It is also a high-volume surgical center with a total of 66 operating rooms. The construction of the $523 million Children and Women’s Hospital and the $132 million Eye Center expansion added 18 operating rooms to the health system for a total of 82 operating rooms. Outpatient care is provided at the main medical campus in Ann Arbor and at numerous satellite locations.

More than 2.4 million outpatient and emergency visits, 48,000 hospital stays, 54,000 surgeries and 4,400 births take place each year at facilities operated by Michigan Medicine, including the University Hospital, C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, Women’s Hospital and the A. Alfred Taubman Health Care Center on the main medical campus, and at outpatient health centers in multiple communities in southeast Michigan.

Michigan Medicine has nearly 26,000 employees, including about 2,700 faculty, more than 5,000 nurses and nearly 1,200 residents and clinical fellows known as house officers as well as other clinical, research, education and administrative staff. In all, the Michigan Medicine community accounts for more than half of the entire University of Michigan faculty/staff headcount across all campuses.

The Michigan Visiting Nurses, a wholly owned part of the Michigan Health Corporation, provides a broad range of home care services in a 13-county area of southeastern Michigan. These include home nursing, specialty treatments, therapy, and palliative care. It also provides public and employer-based immunization services.

From 1986 to 2006, the health system included M-CARE, a managed-care organization that provided health plans to university faculty, staff, retirees, and dependents and to employees of companies throughout Michigan. In late 2006, due to rapidly changing conditions in the health-plan climate and the need for the health system to focus on its core missions of patient care, research, and education, it sold M-CARE to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and its Blue Care Network subsidiary.

Under a leadership and organization structure introduced in January 2016, the position of dean of the medical school is held by the individual serving as the university’s executive vice president for medical affairs. the two positions previously had been separate.

All physicians who are part of the U-M Medical School faculty group practice, known as the U-M Medical Group, hold faculty positions. The medical group has a membership of more than 2,000 physicians and other health professionals practicing in 20 specialties. Patients at many hospitals and clinics in southeastern Michigan also receive U-M physicians’ care through affiliations with other health institutions, including the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System.

A total of 708 medical students, 1,100 house officers (interns/residents), 588 graduate students, and 604 postdoctoral research fellows are currently in training at the medical school,  and more than 15,000 practicing physicians and health professionals receive continuing medical education through U-M courses each year. In addition to the M.D. program and post-M.D. residency and fellowship Graduate Medical Education programs, the U-M Medical School offers master’s degree, Ph.D., and post-Ph.D. training in the basic sciences through the Program in Biomedical Sciences (PIBS) and the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. The school offers accredited residency and fellowship training in 105 disciplines.

The VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System is affiliated with the U-M Medical School. All physicians who practice at VA hospital and clinics have U-M faculty appointments as well as VA appointments. Medical students receive training at the VA as part of their internal-medicine rotations but can also receive training for other specialties.

The current medical campus complex includes facilities for the UM Medical School, which was founded in 1848 as the Department of Medicine and opened to students in 1850. The medical campus complex also includes the Hospitals and Health Centers, which trace their history back to the nation’s first university owned and operated hospital which opened in 1869.

The building contains six levels, including two partial levels, of research laboratories and offices, and features a basement, a two-level vivarium space that includes an imaging core, surgery, behavioral testing suite, aquatics suite, and cage/rack washing facilities. It houses 144 faculty offices; 1,600 sq ft (150 m2) of divisible seminar room and break-out area; 16,000 sq ft (1,500 m2) of linear equipment space; alcoves for tissue culture, fume hoods, general bench space and lab entries. The 240 lab modules in the building are grouped into six “neighborhoods” for geriatrics and biogerontology; immunology; cardiovascular science; cellular and molecular therapeutics; organogenesis; and neuroscience). The grouping of lab modules by scientific themes is a departure from traditional groupings by departrment.  The facility is also home of the internationally renowned Center for Organogenesis  and U-M Program for Neurology Research and Discovery (P-FUND).

In 2009, the University of Michigan acquired the 174-acre (0.70 km2) former Pfizer facility with 28-buildings and created the North Campus Research Complex. The complex was adjacent to the North Campus and occupied land that the University sold to pharmaceutical manufacturer Parke-Davis in 1957. In 1970, Warner-Lambert acquired Parke-Davis and in 2000, it was purchased by Pfizer.

After a strategic planning process, the first U-M employees moved to NCRC in spring 2010, occupying administrative space.  One year later, the first laboratory researchers moved into former Pfizer research space. By early 2013, 2,000 faculty and staff were stationed at the site.  By 2017, a decade after Pfizer announced its intention to leave the facility, U-M had 2,200 faculty and staff, and more than 600 students, based at the facility.

The acquisition of the site spurred the development of several new interdisciplinary research institutes. The Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, created in 2011, brings together more than 500 faculty from many areas of U-M, who perform health services research to study and improve the delivery, quality, safety, oversight and economics of healthcare. The Biointerfaces Institute, created in 2012, and the Michigan Institute for Research in Critical Care, created in 2013,  both bring together researchers from diverse fields.

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