The first university of Hungary was established in Pécs by Louis I of Hungary in 1367,the letters patent issued by pope Urban V, similar to that of the University of Vienna. The university existed for a few decades, then split into two schools, one of jurisprudence and one of theology in the course of the 15th century. The university was completely discontinued during Ottoman occupation, then restarted in 1785 by Joseph II moving the Royal Academy from Győr to Pecs. In 1802 the Royal Academy was moved back to Győr by the order of Francis I, and higher education was discontinued in Pecs until 1833, when the bishop of Pecs in conjunction with the city senate founded the Pecs Academy, comprising a legal and a philosophical faculty.
The modern University of Pécs was founded in 1912, and was originally located in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia). Since after the World War I Pozsony too came to be cut off from Hungary, in 1921 the university moved to Pécs, where it remained to this day. In 1951 the medical faculty was separated from the university, and till 2000 was a separate institution. The university was renamed Janus Pannnonius University in 1982. The present University of Pécs was created on January 1, 2000, via the merger of Janus Pannonius University, the Medical University of Pécs and the Illyés Gyula Teacher Training College of Szekszárd.
With its ten faculties, the University of Pécs offers a broad range of training and degree programmes, with more than 25,000 students and nearly 2,000 teaching and research staff.
In September 2006, a modern higher educational training system initiated by the European Union was introduced in Hungary too, known as the Bologna process, which offers students an opportunity to pursue their studies in a dynamically developing, convertible European higher educational system. The traditional college and university level training programmes were replaced by a three-tier system consisting of a basic training programme (BA, BSc), a master level programme (MA, MSc), and doctoral level (PhD, DLA) programme.